The Three Kingdoms Wiki
Ma Chao
Character information
Force(s): Ma Chao's Forces
Zhang Lu's Forces
Liu Zhang's Forces
Significant Battle(s):
Battle of He Dong
Siege of Chang'an
Battle of Tong Gate
Battle of Jia Meng Gate
Battle of Mt. Ding Jun
Battle of Yi Ling
Battle of Nan Zhong
Historical information
Real name: Ma Chao
Chinese name: 马超
Style name:
Chinese name:
Born: 176
Died: 222

Ma Chao was a general of Shu.


Ma Chao was the son of Ma Teng and nephew of Han Sui and was born in Liang Province, northwestern China. Ma Chao was known for his prowess in combat and was admired by his peers. In AD 207, he aided in the attack on the Yuan family alongside his commanders Pang De and Ma Dai, and became admired by Cao Cao, who had appointed his father to higher positions in the Han Dynasty. But in AD 211, Cao Cao executed Ma Teng, since he was plotting to assassinate him and liberate Emperor Xian. Ma Chao attacked Chang'an alongside Han Sui and his father's former army and officers, and temporarily seized it. Cao Cao took his rebellion seriously and mustered a large army to fight against Ma Chao at Tong Gate. During that battle, Han Sui defected to Cao Cao after a letter from Cao Cao was found in his quarters and Ma Chao grew suspicious. Ma Chao, enraged, cut his arm off and killed Ma Wan, Liang Xing, and Li Kan. Ma Chao was defeated, and fled to Zhang Lu. In AD 214, Zhang Lu sent Ma Chao to assist Governor Liu Zhang of Yi Province against Liu Bei, the former prefect of Xu Province. Ma Chao fought Liu Bei's general Zhang Fei to a draw at Jia Meng Gate that year, and surrendered to Liu Bei following the brief battle. Ma Chao and Ma Dai became Shu generals, but Pang De was not ordered to Yi Province by Zhang Lu and surrendered to Cao Cao following Zhang Lu's capitulation in AD 215. That year, the Shu army invaded Hanzhong and Ma Chao commanded one of the divisions in the northern campaign. He defeated the Wei at Yangping Gate in AD 219, where Pang De had surrendered four years before. After the battle there, he fought Wei again at Mt. Dingjun and attacked the Wei near Dingjunshan at Tiandang, where he participated in the fire attack against Xiahou De and Han Hao. He returned to Jing Province just in time to catch a glimpse of Guan Yu's defeat at Fan Castle, and though he brought reinforcements, Guan Yu was killed in battle. In AD 222, Ma Chao and Ma Dai participated in the campain to avenge him at Yiling alongside Liu Bei himself, but was defeated and the battle ended up in a total disaster for the Shu army. Ma Chao died in AD 222 after having fought in several battles.